History of south India
The history of the southern part of India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. The period of known history of the region begins with the Iron age (1200 BCE to 24 BCE) period Until the 14th Century CE Dynasties of Satavahana, Chola, Chera, Chalukya, Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Kakatiya and Hoysala were at their peak during various periods of history. These Dynasties constantly fought amongst each other and against external forces when Muslim armies invaded south India. Vijayanagara Empire rose in response to the Muslim intervention and covered the most of south India and acted as a bulwark against Mughal expansion into the south. When the European powers arrived during the 16th century CE, the southern kingdoms resisted the new threats, and many parts eventually succumbed to British occupation. The British created the Madras Presidency which covered most of south India directly administered by the British Raj, and divided the rest into a number of dependent princely states.
The Pallavas, Cholas and Pandyas shared the power in the Tamil Country. The Pallavas had risen to power in the far south with Kanchi (present Kanchipuram) as capital somewhere in the 4th Century. In the 8th century, Chalukya took over Kanchi. By the end of 9th century AD Aditya Chola defeated Aparajita pallava and took possession. During the reign of Pallavas, Kanchi become a great centre of Brahmanical and Buddhist learning. Many of the famous temples were built during this era. The Pallava artists from Kanchi might have helped to build great temples in Cambodia and Java
Cheras ruled Kerala and Chalukyas reined Karnataka. In second century AD, after the death of Gauthamiputra Satkarni the Satavahana Empire broke up into pieces and continued to rule the Andras until Ikshvakus took over.
The Chalukyas rose to power in the Karnataka in the 6th century AD with Vatapi (present Badami) as capital. The real founder of the dynasty was Pulikesin I who performed ‘ASWAMEDHA YAGA’ to access to power. His sons extended the empire in all directions. Pulikesin II 609-642 consolidated his power in Maharashtra and conquered nearly the whole of Deccan. By 753 AD, Vikramaditya II, the Chalukyas king was overthrown by Dandidurga and laid foundation a new empire called Rastrakutas
The Rastrakutas Empire extended from south Gujarat, Malva and Baghalkhand in the north to Tanjore to the south. In 973 Tailia II, a descendent from the early Chalukyas, overthrew the dynasty.
By 850 AD, Cholas has raised to power and ruling the south Tamil Country from Tanjore under Rajaraja I (985 – 1018) and his son Rajendra Chola I (1018 -1048) Cholas conqured the whole Tamil country.
Pandyas occupied the present Madurai and Thirunelveli District with part of old Travancore. They called in trade and learning. The Pandyas kingdom rose to fame during the 13th Century, Kafur conquered the kingdom in early 14th century. Vijayanagar Empire absorbed it after a brief period.
The 1328 Hoysala Empire fell to Mohamed Bin Tughluq. After the withdrawal of Tughluq, Vijayanagar Empire and Bahmani Sultanate were founded in the south.
Vijayanagar Empire this kingdom of Hindu alliance was founded in 1328 with capital Hampi to counter the Muslim power. Vijayanagar Empire grew to be the strongest and wealthiest Hindu Kingdom for two centuries . Under the rule of Bukka I, almost all of south India was under its Rule
Bahmani Sultanate: The Muslim Bahmani kingdom was founded in 1345 with capital at Gulbarga and later at Bidar north of the Vijayanagar Empire. By 15th Century the Bahmani Sultanate was split up into five separate Kingdom with capitals Berar, Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golconda and Ahmadabad
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The area of south India is 635,780 km